Studi Anatomi Catecholamine Mesolimbic Pathway pada Kalong Kapauk (Pteropus vampyrus) Asal Pulau Timor
Catecholamine mesolimbic pathway (CMP) is a dopamine pathways of the brain that derived from cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the limbic area i.e. nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus. In normal conditions, CMP plays a role as controls of motor activity, motivation, emotional and cognitive. Bats are flying mammals which can be potential as natural reservoir of rabies. One of the symptoms of animal rabies is impaired in emotional control that related with limbic system. Kalong kapauk (Pteropus vampyrus) is one of the species of bats that distributed in south Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and spread out to the island of Timor, East Nusa Tenggara. The aim of this research is studying the anatomical structures in CMP of kalong kapauk (Pteropus vampyrus) from Timor island.
Four kalong kapauk (Pteropus vampyrus) from Soe-Timor island, East Nusa Tenggara was anaesthetized by using ketamine (20 mg/kg bw) and xylazin (2 mg/kg bw). In deep anesthesia condition, animals were perfused by using physiological saline and after the blood were removed well, the physiological saline were changed to 10% buffered formalin as a fixative. The brain were removed from the cranium, dissected midsagital and processed for histology by paraffin method. The brains were cut in 12 μm thickness and then it stained by using cresyl echt violet and immunohistochemistry by tyrosine hydroxilase antibody. The sections were examined for shape and size of neurons in the VTA and their axonal pathways by light microscope and were documented using a digital camera. The results were analyzed descriptively.
The results shows that neurons in the VTA are bipolar and multipolar in shape with the size of 10-32 μm (mean 20.31 ± 4.40 μm) and densities are 15.33 ± 5.71 cells/0,116 mm2. The area of nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and cornua ammonis 3 of hippocampal are TH immunoreactive as the axon terminal. The conclusion of this study is there are catecholaminergic neurons in the VTA that made an area limbic pathways i.e. nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and cornua ammonis 3 of hippocampal.
Barrett JL. 2004. Australian bat lyssavirus. Brisbane, Australia, Brisbane School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland. Pp 405.
Calisher CH, Childs JE, Field HE, Holmes KV, Schountz T. 2006. Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 19: 531-545.
Corbet GB, Hill JE. 1992. Mammals of the Indomalayan region: a systematic review. Oxford University Press.
Felten DL, Sladek JR. 1983. Monoamine Distribution in Primate Brain V. Monoaminergic Nuclei:Anatomy, Pathways and Local Organization. Brain Research Bulletin 10:171-284.
Fu ZF, Weihe E, Zheng YM, Schafer MH, Sheng H, Corisdeo S, Rauscher FJ, Koprowski H, Dietzschold B. 1993. Differential effects of rabies and Borna disease viruses on immediate-early- and late-response gene expression in brain tissues. Journal of Virology 67: 6674-6681.
Gasbarri A, Sulli A, Packard MG. 1997. The dopaminergic mesencephalic projections to the hippocampal formation in the rat. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 21: 1-22.
Halliday GM, Tork I. 1986. Comparative anatomy of the ventromedial mesencephalic tegmentum in the rat, cat, monkey and human. Journal of Comparative Neurology 252: 423- 445.
Jackson AC, Fu ZF. 2005. Mini review- The rabies virus:Neuronal dysfunction and death in rabies virus infection. Journal of Neurovirology 11: 101-106.
Johnson SW, North RA. 1992. Two types of neurone in the rat ventral tegmental area and their synaptic inputs. The Journal of Physiology 450: 455-468.
Kandel ER, Schwartz J, Jessell T. 2000. Principles of neural science, fourth edition. McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division.
Klejbor I, Domaradzka-Pytel B, Ludkiewicz B, Wójcik S, Morys J. 2004. The relationships between neurons containing dopamine and nitric oxide synthase in the ventral tegmental area. Folia Histochemica Et Cytobiologica 42: 83-87.
Korotkova TM, Sergeeva OA, Eriksson KS, Haas HL, Brown RE. 2003. Excitation of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons by orexins/hypocretins. The Journal of Neuroscience 23: 7-11.
Kunz TH, Jones DP. 2000. Pteropus vampyrus. Mammalian Species 642:1-6. Lubee No 3.
LaBossiere E. 1976. Histological Processing for the Neural Sciences. USA:Charles and Thomas Publisher. Pp : 39-40.
Lorke DE, Kwong WH, Chan WY, Yew DT. 2003. Development of Catecholaminergic Neurons in the Human Medulla Oblongata. Life Science 73:1315-31.
Maseko BC, Bourne JA, Manger PR. 2007. Distribution and morphology of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the brain of the Egyptian Rousette flying fox, Rousettus aegyptiacus. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy 34:108-127.
McColl KA, Tordo N, Aquilar SAA. 2000. Bat Lyssavirus Infections. Revue Scientifique et Technique 19:177-196.
Mogenson GJ, Jones DL, Yim CY. 1980. From motivation to action: functional interface between the limbic system and the motor system. Progress in Neurobiology 14:69-97.
Neuweiler G. 2000. The biology of bats. Oxford:Oxford University Press.
Ong LK, Bobrovskaya L, Walker FR, Day TA, Dickson PW, Dunkley PR. 2011. The Effect of Social Defeat on Tyrosine Hydroxylase Phosphorylation in the Rat Brain and Adrenal Gland. Neurochemical Research 36:27–33.
Paxinos G, Watson C. 2007. The Rat Brain in Stereotaxic Coordinates, sixth edition. Elsevier Academic Press.
Smeets WJAJ, Gonzales A. 2000. Catecholamine systems in the brain of vertebrates:new perspectives through a comparative approach. Brain Research 33:308-379.
Suyanto A. 2001. Kelelawar di Indonesia. Puslitbang Biologi LIPI. PT. Ghalia Indonesia.