All those who have made a significant contribution should be given chance to be cited as authors. Other individuals who have contributed to the work should be acknowledged. Articles should include a full list of the current institutional affiliations of all authors, both academic and corporate.
Unauthorized authorship is an act:
- voluntary or compulsion as a co-author without contributing to published scientific works;
- omit the name of a person who contributed to the published scientific work; and/or
- instruct others to make scientific works as scientific figures without any contribution; Contributions can be ideas, opinions, or active roles related to the scientific field and can be proven. The short term of unauthorized authorship is "Increasing or reducing the author's name unethically".
Plagiarism is an act:
- refer to and/or quote phrases and/or sentences of an uncommon nature without mentioning the source of the work itself or others in the quotation notes and/or without stating the source in accordance with the reference and/or quotation in the scientific writing; using sources of ideas, opinions, views, data, and/or theories without stating the source of one's own work or others in accordance with the reference and/or citation in scientific writing;
- formulate by one's own sentences from the source of sentences, data, or theories without stating the source of the work itself or others in accordance with the reference and/or citation of scientific writing;
- translating writings from a source of one's own work or others in whole or in part that is recognized as its scientific work; and/or recognize a work produced by another party as his scientific work.
Reproducing text from other papers without properly crediting the source (plagiarism) or producing many papers with almost the same content by the same authors (self-plagiarism) is not acceptable. Submitting the same results to more than one journal concurrently is unethical. Exceptions are the review articles. Authors may not present results obtained by others as if they were their own. Authors should acknowledge the work of others used in their research and cite publications that have influenced the direction and course of their study.
The Journal Editorial Team will check the plagiarism of all submitted articles.
Based on the Editorial Guide for The Management of Scientific Journals of the Directorate of Intellectual Property Management, Deputy for Strengthening Research and Development of the Ministry of Technology Research / National Research and Innovation Agency 2020, there are several types of plagiarism:
- Direct Plagiarism.
Direct plagiarism is copying every word from someone else's work without mentioning the source, or without including quotation marks. Deliberate plagiarism of the work of others is unethical, and academically dishonest.
- Self Plagiarism.
Self plagiarism occurs if the author uses previously published material, or takes a portion of the material that has been published before without the knowledge of the other authors.
- Mosaic Plagiarism.
Mosaic plagiarism occurs if a person uses a phrase from another source without listing 'quotation marks', or uses synonyms but the sentence structure and meaning are still the same as the original.
- Accidental Plagiarism.
Accidental plagiarism occurs if the author forgets to list the source of the reference, or misstated the source, or accidentally rewrote a few words, sentences without mentioning the source. Although this type of plagiarism occurs accidentally, this kind of plagiarism is also treated the same as other plagiarism and is a scientific violation.
Ministry of Technology Research / National Research accepts a plagiarism percentage tolerance of up to 25%, but this largely depends on the context of the percentage similarity of each source. This percentage of similarity does not include direct quotations and References. If the percentage of similarities to one large and sequential source in one sentence or paragraph, this is also unacceptable, although the total percentage is still below 15%.
Fabrication, falsification or selective reporting of data with the intent to mislead or deceive is unethical, as is the theft of data or research results from others. The results of research should be recorded and maintained to allow for analysis and review. Following publication, the data should be retained for a reasonable period and made available upon request. Exceptions may be appropriate in certain circumstances in order to preserve privacy, to assure patent protection, or for similar reasons.
- Fabrication is the creation of data and/or false information research into scientific papers, a short term: "Making to deceive". The purpose of fabrication is (to support claims, hypotheses, or other data in order) to benefit the unauthorized party and/or the loss of the rightful party. Fabrication occurs at the time of reporting or submission of research results in publications. Fabrication includes the behavior of reporting, creating, engineering, and/or adding.
- Falsification is the unauthorized engineering of data and/or research information into scientific works. Short terms: "Changing to deceive", the data and/or information presented is not in accordance with truth/reality (violation of truth), at the stage of the research process: the object of falsification includes the activity of manipulating tools/instruments, materials, and/or research processes including practicing, and/or eliminating, changing.
Conflict of interests
Conflict of interest is the act of producing scientific work following the wishes of the party who gives or benefits without conducting research in accordance with the rules of scientific ethics. "Compromise or deviation from neutrality". Conflicts of interest may occur before and during research as well as in the writing of reports. Violations that occur before and during research can involve funding research whose results have been ordered from the beginning. Violations that occur at the time of preparation of the report can be the use of "order references". Conflicts of interest occur in the form of denying or at least not recognizing the receipt of assistance, profits or potential profits, in the process of conducting research or drafting publication manuscripts. All authors, referees and editors must declare any conflicting or competing interests relating to a given article. Competing interests through their potential influence on behaviour or content or perception may undermine the objectivity, integrity or perceived value of publication.
Duplicate (double) submission
Double submission, is the act of submitting the same scientific work manuscript and published in more than one journal and / or publisher. General terms: "Repeated publication of the same article", "Manipulation so that the number of articles is large". This violation occurs when the author submits the same manuscript to several different journal editors simultaneously or submits a manuscript that has been published to several other journal editors. This violation also includes the submission of a script that is title-altered or rewritten but has massive and fundamental similar content. Simultaneous submissions of the same manuscript to different journals will not be tolerated. The submitted article will be removed without consideration.
Corrections and retractions
All authors have an obligation to inform and cooperate with journal editors to provide prompt retractions or correction of errors in published works.
Journal editors will retract publications if:
- it is clearly proven that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of behavioral errors (e.g. falsification of data) or research errors (e.g. discretionary or experimental errors).
- previous findings have been published elsewhere without proper cross-reference, permission or justification (missal cases of overpublishing).
- there are indications of plagiarism.
- report/publish research results that are not in accordance with scientific ethics
Journal editors consider issuing corrections (corrigendum) if:
- a small percentage of publications that are declared reliable prove to be misleading (mainly due to research errors).
- incorrect author/contributor list (e.g. a worthy author has been omitted or someone who does not meet authorship criteria has been included).
- retraction is usually not necessary if a change of authorship is needed but there is no reason to doubt the validity of findings.
Retraction is a mechanism for correcting literature and alerting readers to publications that contain data that is so incorrect or erroneous that their findings and conclusions are unreliable. Unreliable data can be caused by research errors. The main purpose of revocation is to correct the literature and ensure its integrity rather than to punish authors who misbehave. Article retraction is also used to remind readers of cases of overpublishing (e.g. when the author presents the same data across multiple publications), plagiarism, and failure to disclose major competing interests that may affect interpretation or recommendation.
The notice of revocation of the article should mention the reasons and basis for revocation, in order to distinguish cases of violation from cases of honest error; they also have to determine who pulled the article. They should be published in all versions of the journal (i.e. print and/or electronic). It would be helpful to include the author and title of the drawn article in the retraction title.
Duties of Authors
- Reporting Standards:
Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.
- Data Access and Retention:
Authors are asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data (consistent with the ALPSP-STM Statement on Data and Databases), if practicable, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.
- Originality and Plagiarism: The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
- Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publication:
An author should not, in general, publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.
- Acknowledgement of Sources:
Proper acknowledgement of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.
- Authorship of the Paper:
Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
- Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:
All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or another substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
- Fundamental errors in published works:
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.
- Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects:
If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the author must clearly identify these in the manuscript.
Duties of Editors
- Fair Play:
An editor at any time evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.
The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.
- Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest:
Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author.
- Publication Decisions:
The editor board journal is responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always drive such decisions. The editors may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editors may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.
- Review of Manuscripts:
The editor must ensure that each manuscript is initially evaluated by the editor for originality. The editor should organise and use peer review fairly and wisely. Editors should explain their peer review processes in the information for authors and also indicate which parts of the journal are peer reviewed. The editor should use appropriate peer reviewers for papers that are considered for publication by selecting people with sufficient expertise and avoiding those with conflicts of interest.
Duties of Reviewers
- Contribution to Editorial Decisions:
Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper.
Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process
- Standards of Objectivity:
Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.
Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorised by the editor.
- Disclosure and Conflict of Interest:
Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.
- Acknowledgement of Sources:
Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.